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Introduction

Bone markings space invaluable come the identification of individual bones and bony piece and assist in the expertise of functional and evolutionary anatomy. Lock are used by clinicians and surgeons, especially orthopedists, radiologists, forensic scientists, detectives, osteologists, and also anatomists. Return the untrained eye may overlook bone markings as contours of the bone, they space not as simple. Bone markings play vital role in human and also animal anatomy and also physiology. The functionality of bone markings varieties from enabling joints to slide previous each various other or lock skeleton in place, offering structural support to muscle and also connective tissue, and also providing circumferential stabilization and also protection to nerves, vessels, and connective tissue. Knowledge the prestige of bone markings gives a brand-new appreciation and also understanding of bony anatomy and its sensible relationships v soft tissues.<1><2><3><4><5>

Common Bone Markings

Angles - sharp bony angulations that might serve together bony or soft organization attachments but often are provided for precise anatomical description. Examples incorporate the superior, inferior, and acromial angles of the scapula and the superior, inferior, lateral angles of the occiput.

Body - This usually describes the largest, most influential segment the bone. Examples incorporate the diaphysis or shaft of lengthy bones prefer the femur and also humerus.

Condyle - describes a huge prominence, which frequently provides structural support to the overlying hyaline cartilage. It bear the brunt that the pressure exerted indigenous the joint. Examples include the knee share (hinge joint), formed by the femoral lateral and medial condyles, and the tibial lateral and medial condyles. Additionally, the occiput has actually an occipital condyle i beg your pardon articulates through atlas(C1) and also accounts for approximately 25 degrees of cervical flexion and also extension. 

Crest - A increased or prominent part of the edge of a bone. Crests are regularly the sites whereby connective organization attaches muscle come bone. The iliac crest is found on the ilium.

Diaphysis - refers to the main part of the obelisk of a lengthy bone. Lengthy bones, consisting of the femur, humerus, and tibia, all have actually a shaft.

Epicondyle - A prestige that sit atop of a condyle. The epicondyle attaches muscle and connective organization to bone, giving support to this musculoskeletal system. Examples incorporate the femoral medial and also lateral epicondyles and humeral medial and lateral epicondyles.

Epiphysis - The articulating segment of a bone, usually at the bone"s proximal and distal poles. The usually has actually a bigger diameter 보다 the tower (diaphysis). The epiphysis is vital for bone growth since it sits adjacent to the physeal line, additionally known as the expansion plate.

Facet - A smooth, level surface that forms a joint with another flat bone or an additional facet, together developing a gliding joint. Instances can be checked out in the page joints the the vertebrae, which allow for flexion and extension that the spine. 

Fissure - An open up slit in a bone that usually homes nerves and blood vessels. Examples incorporate superior and inferior orbital fissure.

Foramen - A hole v which nerves and also blood vessels pass. Examples include supraorbital foramen, infraorbital foramen, and mental foramen top top the cranium.

Fossa - A shallow depression in the bone surface. Below it may receive an additional articulating bone or act to support mind structures. Examples encompass trochlear fossa, posterior, middle, and also anterior cranial fossa.

Groove - A furrow in the bone surface ar that runs along the length of a vessel or nerve, providing room to stop compression by surrounding muscle or external forces. Examples incorporate a radial groove and the groove because that the transverse sinus.

Head - A rounded, prominent extension of bone the forms component of a joint. The is separated indigenous the obelisk of the bone by the neck. The head is usually spanned in hyaline cartilage inside a synovial capsule. It is the key articulating surface ar with the nearby bone, developing a "ball-and-socket" joint.

Margin - The edge of any flat bone. It deserve to be provided to specify a bone"s boundaries accurately. For example, the edge of the temporal bone articulating v the occipital bone is dubbed the occipital margin of the temporal bone. And also vice versa, the leaf of the occipital bone articulating with the temporal bone is dubbed the temporal margin the the occipital bone.

Meatus - A tube-like channel that extends in ~ the bone, which may administer passage and also protection to nerves, vessels, and even sound. Examples include external acoustic meatus and also internal auditory meatus.

Neck - The segment between the head and also the column of a bone. That is often demarcated indigenous the head by the visibility of the physeal heat in pediatric patients and also the physeal scar (physeal heat remnant) in adults. That is frequently separated right into the operation neck and also anatomical neck. The anatomical neck, which may represent the old epiphyseal plate, is often demarcated through its attachment to capsular ligaments. The surgical neck is often much more distal and is demarcated by the website on the neck the is most commonly fractured. For example, in the humerus, the anatomical neck operation obliquely indigenous the greater tuberosity to simply inferior come the humeral head. The surgical neck runs horizontally and a couple of centimeters distal come the humeral tuberosities.

Notch - A depression in a bone which often, but not always, offers stabilization come an adjacent articulating bone. The articulating bone will certainly slide into and out the the notch, guiding the variety of motion of the joint. Examples include the trochlear notch ~ above the ulna, radial notch that the ulna, suprasternal notch, and also the mandibular notch.

Ramus - The curved component of a bone that provides structural support to the remainder of the bone. Examples incorporate the superior/inferior pubic ramus and ramus that the mandible.

Sinus - A cavity within any type of organ or tissue. Examples incorporate paranasal sinuses and dural venous sinuses.

Spinous procedure - A raised, sharp elevation of bone whereby muscles and also connective organization attach. The is different than a normal process in the a spinous process is an ext pronounced.

Trochanter - A large prominence ~ above the side of the bone. Several of the biggest muscle groups and also most dense connective tissues connect to the trochanter. The most notable examples are the greater and lesser trochanters that the femur.

Tuberosity - A moderate importance where muscles and connective organization attach. Its role is similar to the of a trochanter. Examples incorporate the tibial tuberosity, deltoid tuberosity, and ischial tuberosity.

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Tubercle - A small, rounded prominence where connective organization attach. Examples encompass the greater and also lesser tubercle that the humerus.