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This ar assumes girlfriend have sufficient background in calculus come be familiar with integration. In Instantaneous Velocity and also Speed and also Average and also Instantaneous Acceleration we introduced the kinematic features of velocity and acceleration utilizing the derivative. By taking the derivative that the position role we discovered the velocity function, and likewise by taking the derivative that the velocity role we discovered the acceleration function. Using integral calculus, we have the right to work backward and also calculate the velocity duty from the acceleration function, and the position duty from the velocity function.

### Kinematic Equations native Integral Calculus

Let’s start with a bit with an acceleration *a*(t) is a known duty of time. Due to the fact that the time derivative that the velocity duty is acceleration,

we have the right to take the unknown integral the both sides, finding

where *C*1 is a consistent of integration. Since

, the velocity is provided by

Similarly, the moment derivative that the position function is the velocity function,

Thus, we have the right to use the exact same mathematical manipulations we just used and also find

where *C*2 is a second constant of integration.

We deserve to derive the kinematic equations because that a constant acceleration utilizing these integrals. With *a*(*t*) = *a* a constant, and also doing the integration in (Figure), we find

If the early stage velocity is *v*(0) = *v*0, then

Then, *C*1 = *v*0 and

which is (Equation). Substituting this expression right into (Figure) gives

Doing the integration, we find

If *x*(0) = *x*0, us have

so, *C*2 = *x*0. Substituting ago into the equation because that *x*(*t*), we finally have

which is (Equation).

### Example

Motion that a MotorboatA motorboat is traveling at a continuous velocity of 5.0 m/s once it starts to decelerate to come at the dock. Its acceleration is

. (a) What is the velocity function of the motorboat? (b) in ~ what time does the velocity with zero? (c) What is the position role of the motorboat? (d) What is the displacement that the motorboat from the moment it starts to reducerhigh to once the velocity is zero? (e) Graph the velocity and position functions.

Strategy(a) To obtain the velocity duty we have to integrate and also use initial conditions to find the continuous of integration. (b) We collection the velocity duty equal to zero and solve because that *t*. (c) Similarly, we must combine to discover the position duty and usage initial conditions to find the continuous of integration. (d) because the initial place is taken to be zero, we only have to evaluate the position duty at

.

SolutionWe take it *t* = 0 to be the time as soon as the boat starts to decelerate.

**Figure 3.30** (a) Velocity that the motorboat together a duty of time. The motorboat to reduce its velocity come zero in 6.3 s. In ~ times greater than this, velocity becomes negative—meaning, the watercraft is reversing direction. (b) position of the motorboat together a function of time. At t = 6.3 s, the velocity is zero and also the watercraft has stopped. At times better than this, the velocity i do not care negative—meaning, if the boat continues to relocate with the very same acceleration, that reverses direction and heads ago toward wherein it originated.

SignificanceThe acceleration function is straight in time so the integration involves an easy polynomials. In (Figure), we watch that if we extend the solution past the suggest when the velocity is zero, the velocity becomes negative and the watercraft reverses direction. This tells us that options can offer us information exterior our prompt interest and we should be mindful when interpreting them.

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### Check her Understanding

A fragment starts indigenous rest and has an acceleration function

. (a) What is the velocity function? (b) What is the place function? (c) once is the velocity zero?

*v*(

*t*) = 5

*t*(1 –

*t*), which equates to zero in ~

*t*= 0, and also

*t*= 1 s.