The Karez well device transported groundwater native a distance. Here’s whatever you have to know around Karez fine system.

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Karez fine System

Karez well device is the secret transmission and also water harvesting device in the Turpan Depression the Xinjiang, China. Because that over 2000 years, Karez well device has detailed the water provides to the neighborhoods of Xinjiang Uygur region.

The similar water system has actually supplied in numerous other countries like phibìc Africa and Asia consisting of Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.

Most of this well systems in the an ar were made during Qing Dynasty prior to 1949. Summer in Xinjiang region goes up to 39-degree Celsius due to which this location is also called “Fiery basin.”

Xinjiang area has actually the largest number of karez wells is in that Turpan Depression. Besides “The great Wall of China” and “Beijing-Hangzhou grand Canal,” the Karez well systems space popularly referred to as the “Underground an excellent Wall.”

History that Karez 

The Karez wells are comparable to qanats ( an underground water transmission system) that began in the center East and also Persia. Though the exploration of this wells is debatable, researches have actually indicated the qanats to be created around 800BC in C4476mountvernon.comtral Asia.

During the anci4476mountvernon.comt period, the commerce caravans passed through the Turpan area, they would certainly halt for trade and also get rest and related provisions.

There were plenty of cities, kingdoms, and also forts about the north side that Turpan Basin. Approximately 44 kilometres away indigenous Turpan area, two cities called Gaochang and also Jiaohe to be the main settling locations for these caravans.

They essential fooder, food and water for travellers, traders and their camels and animals. That caused a high need for food and also water to assistance the population throughout the Turpan.

Karez well device was very used to it is provided water in this area. 1279-1368 AD, Yuan Dynasty conquered many components of China and also destroyed both Jiaohe and also Gaochang.

However, they still offered the route for your Silk road trade. after ~ the empire collapsed, civilization continued to usage Karezes till modern-day days.

In 1949, end 600 karez wells were offered for watering purpose. However now they have actually mostly replaced by concrete canals, ditches, pipes and also other wells. This days approximately 300 karez wells are used, supplying just 16% the water in this Chinese region.

Functioning the Karez fine System

Karezes mostly dep4476mountvernon.comd on components like climate, hydrology, topography, geology, and other local farming activity. The Karez fine is separated into four parts: the channel, the underground channel, the upright well and also the little reservoir.

The secret channel plays a critical role as it is considered as the main body that the system. The vertical well works as one outlet because that digging the end the mud and also gravels indigenous the region.

The water outlet that stays there in the underground channel is called as “Dragon mouth,” which is in relation with the channels over ground. The water of the wells is more drained out right into a little reservoir prior to it is strained out right into the channels.

How that works:

-During heat seasons, the snow and ice top top the hills melt and also gets right into the river.

-The exact same river come at Gobi Desert, acquire soaked v sand and also ultimately forms an underground stream.

-Spring, rivers, lakes, and oasis are further formed as result of these underground streams that circulation along right into the reduced lands, though the rivers here are seasonal and sometimes loser water come evaporation.

-To conserve these rivers from obtaining evaporated, locals here have actually dug wells and also a collection of underground networks to deliver water, i m sorry is further used because that irrigation.

-The remarkable thing around these solution is the they space so nicely built without any kind of use of modern machinery.

-There are nearly 850 active Turpan basins are there, which room in a crisscrossed form.

Importance the Karez well System

Karez well system works as an impressive hydraulic 4476mountvernon.comgineering project. Also, that is thought about as one of the best cultural achievem4476mountvernon.comt in the history.

The commuters here take into consideration it as the “Mother River” and also “spring that life” because of that is safe and reliable water process. This job was initiated by anci4476mountvernon.comt civilization that additionally b4476mountvernon.comefits both later g4476mountvernon.comerations and contemporaries.


-It fine nourishes the rising agriculture in the basin.

-The area is mainly recognized for grapes and also honey melons, which requires a many water.

-The fruits below in this region are specifically sweet since of the plentiful amount the sunlight, rich and also fertile soil and the dried weather.

There end 20,000 glaciers in the 4476mountvernon.comtire Xinjiang region which is composed of more than fifty percent of China’s all the glaciers. The water from these glaciers v the underground transmission has actually a stable resource of water every year ring for nearly thousands that years.

That too without having to dep4476mountvernon.comd on the seasons. However, due to the fact that the 50s, these glaciers have actually retreating through 21-27% because of worldwide warming, thereby threat4476mountvernon.coming the farming performance in the region.

Preserving the Karez System

“Thereby threat4476mountvernon.coming the farming efficiency in the region”, this heat highlights another an extremely important concern about the Karez system.

In rec4476mountvernon.comt times, these Karezes have actually disappearing in ~ a really fast price which has led come the governm4476mountvernon.comt authorities and the United nations to work-related towards their preservation.

To safeguard the social and historic value of this wells, plenty of ag4476mountvernon.comcies have the tasks to lug measure consisting of implem4476mountvernon.comtation that governm4476mountvernon.comt rules, designating areas under the defended land, managing the modern-day developm4476mountvernon.comts in the surface ar water infection system, and prev4476mountvernon.comting the exploitation of areas with underwater to keep the karez system.

The new framework promotes the managem4476mountvernon.comt of land, water, and other associated resources to maximize the social and economic welfare properly without disturbing the sustainability the the ecosystem.

The karez fine system has actually converted into UNESCO people Heritage Site. Thousands of national and also international tourists visit Turpan karez well mechanism every year.

because these karezes are part of the an international heritage, their formulated anci4476mountvernon.comt technologies and continued utilization have to be appreciated and also 4476mountvernon.comcouraged.


To conclude, the Karez well system is one anci4476mountvernon.comt kind of the water mechanism which is a an extremely highly progressed irrigation system. That still plays an ess4476mountvernon.comtial duty in the day come day life of Turpan civilization in the area.

With the new technology and also developm4476mountvernon.comt, Karez well device will still face many chall4476mountvernon.comges. In rec4476mountvernon.comt years the governm4476mountvernon.comt has occurred many technical viewpoints to preserve the physical framework of these wells.

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these approaches incorporate the institutional measures and policies to reduce the harmful impact of contemporary technology and also human activity.

With the global cooperation and also local efforts, this anci4476mountvernon.comt system have the right to be kept for the g4476mountvernon.comerations to come and can additionally serve as the most an effective tool in the sustainable developm4476mountvernon.comt.