Prof. Liwayway Memije-Cruz is an author, educator and also speaker. She has been teaching science subjects in different universities and colleges


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When a hydrogen atom loses its solitary electron. It i do not care a hopeful hydrogen ion (H+). A an adverse chlorine ion (Cl-) is a chlorine atom v one added electron.

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Introduction

Atomic Structure

To understand how elements are merged to type compounds, the is essential to recognize the structure of atoms. Atom consist mostly of electrically fee particles dubbed electrons and protons. each electron has an unfavorable charge and each proton has a positive charge. Neutrons, i m sorry are likewise present in atoms, have no charge. Normally, one atom contains as countless electrons as protons. The an unfavorable charges and also the confident charges balance every other and the atom is neutral (uncharged). If the balance in between electrons and also protons is upset, the atom i do not care an electrically charged unit dubbed anion. An atom becomes confident ion if it loses one or more electrons and also they are called cation. For example, when a hydrogen atom loser its solitary electron. It becomes a positive hydrogen ion (H+). A an unfavorable chlorine ion (Cl-) is a chlorine atom with one additional electron.


Electrons swing in various distances from the cell nucleus of an atom. The route of the electron develops a collection of shells with the nucleus at the center. Each succeeding covering is farther indigenous the nucleus native the one below it. Scientist has discovered that each shell have the right to contain no an ext than a certain number of electrons. The first shell holds no much more than 2 electrons. The second can organize 8; the third, no much more than 18 and so on. Most interactions among atoms take ar in the outermost covering of each atom. The variety of each electron in this covering determines exactly how an atom combine with other atoms to form compounds. As soon as atoms integrate they gain, lose or share electrons in such a method that the outer shells come to be chemically complete.

Valence is the residential or commercial property related come the electron in an atom’s outer shell. The valence that an element is the variety of electrons the elements gain or loses when it forms compounds with other elements. Electrons in the outermost shell are dubbed valence electron.


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Chemical bonding


What is chemical bonding?

Atoms, in a sense, space tied with each other to type molecules. The atoms of molecule are attached together through a reaction recognized as chemical bonding. A chemistry bond is a force that stop atom together. How do atom combine? What space the forces that tie them? These concerns are basic in the examine of chemistry because a chemistry reaction is essentially an change of chemical bonds. Critical clue to the expertise of the driving pressure for chemical bonding was the discovery of the noble gases and also their apparently inert chemistry behavior. Facets tend to acquire this construction of fully filled outer shells in order to obtain stability.


The move or share of electrons of the atoms in a compound forms a linkage between them i beg your pardon chemists call the chemistry bond. There room two types of chemistry bonds, (1) ionic bond and (2) covalent bond.

Octet Rule

In order to acquire an inert gas configuration, over there is a need for 8 electrons to accounting the s p circulation in the highest energy level of one atom.

Consider the individual elements Na and Cl. Sodium has the electronic configuration:

Na = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1

And its outer shell construction is 3s

Cl = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5

And its outer shell configuration is 3p5

How might Na and also Cl achieve the outer-shell octet?

There room three feasible ways for any atom to take in quest of an octet:

1. Electrons could be given up come some various other atoms or team of atoms.

2. Electrons could be got from some other atoms.


3. Electrons can be shared between two atoms.

The three options are depicted in the number below. Apply these selections to sodium and chlorine.


Let united state consider first Sodium and also apply each of this choices:

In the first choice, if the 3s1 is lost, the second shell becomes the outer-shell, with a configuration of 2s2 2p6, an outer-shell octet. The sodium now has 11 protons and 10 electrons, giving it a net charge of +1 (Na +1).

For the second possibility, a total of 7 electron would have to be acquired to produce the outer-shell octet3s2 3p6. Each time one electron is gained, the Na atom acquires one unit of an unfavorable electrical charge, therefore, a obtain of seven electrons to produce a net charge of -7, i m sorry is noted as Na -7.

If the third selection is taken and also electrons space shared, sodium could administer one electron (the 3s1) and also the various other atom(s), would have actually to carry out a full of seven more.

Now i m sorry of the three possibilities will Na choose?

In general, atoms will certainly follow the "course that action" which results in the most stable instance - the lowest power state. The is daunting for any atom to uncover other atoms, i m sorry will offer up a full of 7 electrons.

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Also, the Na -7 is not stable, due to the fact that the 11 proton of Sodium might not be able to exert a solid force of attraction to host on come the 18 electrons. And also in an effort to re-superstructure electrons, sodium will have the problem finding atoms, which have the problem finding atoms, i beg your pardon must carry out the bulk of electron shared. Figure 6-2 illustrates these points.