The "host range" for a virus is determined by the presence or absence of particular components on the surface of a host cell that are required for the virus to attach.

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Spikes are found on some viruses. They are very consistent in structure and can be used for identification.
What happens to the packaged DNA of a specialized transduced phage when it infects a new recipient cell?
How can specialized transduction contribute to the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in a bacterial population?
The prophage takes an antibiotic resistance gene with it and is packaged with the newly synthesized viral DNA.
During lysogeny, the viral genome integrates into the host DNA, becoming a physical part of the chromosome.
We sometimes are able to generate antibodies (immune system proteins) that bind to and cover up some of the proteins on the outermost portion of a virus while it is in the bloodstream. This renders the virus unable to reproduce. Which step of viral replication are antibodies directly preventing?
Enveloped viruses have a layer of lipids surrounding their capsid. This envelope is made mostly of host cell membrane. In which step does the virus acquire this envelope?
Diploid cell culture lines, developed from human embryos, are widely used for culturing viruses that require a human host.

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Prions transform normal proteins into the misfolded beta-pleated sheet configuration; therefore, prions multiply by conversion.
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